1Hussain S. Hussain Al-Zaidi, 2Ban F. Al-Drobie, PhD, and 3Bashar H. Abdullah, PhD. 1Oral Surgery Unit, Al-Maghrib Specialized Dental Health Center, Baghdad Health Directorate, Al-Rusafa, Ministry of Health, Baghdad, Iraq.2,3Department of Oral Diagnosis, College of Dentistry, University of Baghdad, Baghdad, Iraq.
Corresponding author: Hussain S. Hussain
Received 22 July 2022.
Accepted for publication on September 14, 2022.
Published January 31, 2023.
Background There have been several attempts to find objective molecular biomarkers that can be used to diagnose and prognosticate chronic hyperplastic candidiasis. The probable transformation of potentially malignant diseases can be linked to the overexpression of p63 with an increasing degree of dysplasia. Objectives To determine the immunohistochemically expression of anti-Candida albicans Ab for identification of Candida albicans and P63 expression to determine the grade of dysplasia in chronic hyperplastic candidiasis Materials and Methods The research included twenty-one formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded blocks of CHC cases that were obtained from the Oral Pathology laboratory records at Oral Diagnosis Department /College of Dentistry/the University of Baghdad. All specimens examined by Periodic Acid Schiff stain for confirmation of the Candida albicans diagnosis, and then an immunohistochemically stain for anti-Candida Albicans Ab performed. They were subjected to immunohistochemically examination using P63 markers. The evaluation of the expression based on the P63 distribution of immunohistochemically staining and staining score. Data were analyzed using Graph Pad prism software (7.0) through Fisher’s exact test (α=5%). Results Both severe and moderate dysplasia cases revealed more candida hyphae as revealed by increasing anti-Candida albicans Ab positivity in both moderate and severe dysplasia. A significant increase in P63 expression (P=0.043) with elevated dysplasia severity was noticed. Conclusion The present findings support the use of immunohistochemically markers such as anti-Candida albicans Ab and p63 as prognostic indicators for oral epithelial dysplasia, to establish a molecular-based grading system for oral epithelial dysplasia to enable prompt therapy before any possible malignant changes.