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Sunday, 16 July 2023 12:36

Prevalence of Orofacial Clefts: A Retrospective Cross-sectional Analysis of Gynecology and Obstetrics Hospital Records in the City of Sulaimani, Kurdistan Region of Iraq

1Milan Karim Fatah, 2Faraedon Mostafa Zardawi, and 3Ali A. Abdulkareem
1, 2Department of Periodontics, College of Dentistry, University of Sulaimani, Sulaimani, Iraq.
2Faculty of Dentistry, Qaiwan International University.
3Department of Periodontics, College of Dentistry, University of Baghdad, Baghdad, Iraq.
Correspondence: Faraedon Mostafa Zardawi
Email: This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it.

Received 03 December 2022.
Accepted for publication on May 31, 2023.
Published July 17, 2023.

Background Cleft lip (CL) and cleft palate (CP) or combinations of both are major congenital anomalies of the orofacial region in humans. Objectives The purpose of this retrospective cross-sectional study was to record the number of newborns with orofacial defects (OFC), cleft lip (CL)/cleft palate (CP), and other congenital anomalies at an obstetrics and gynaecological hospital. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to determine the birth prevalence of CL and CP and their association with the sex of newborns in this hospital. Materials and Methods This cross-sectional study was based on records obtained from the archive of the main obstetrics and gynecological hospital in the city of Sulaimani, Kurdistan region of Iraq from 2002 to 2019, after attaining permission from the Directory of the Health of Sulaimani City and the managing office of the hospital. The study protocol was submitted to the ethical and scientific committee of the College of Dentistry, University of Sulaimani, and ethical approval was obtained to conduct the study. The records of newborns with congenital anomalies were studied carefully to determine the prevalence of OFC recorded. Data were interpreted to determine the incidence rate of OFC. Results out of 254555, the number of deformities among male newborns was 944 while the affected female was 771. For males, the percentage ranged from 35.8% in 2016 to 65.6% in 2004 with a reversed figure for their female counterparts in the same period. Over 18 years the total newborns recorded 140 cases of OFC (85, 9% male and 55, 7.1% female). The incidence rate ranged from <1 to 14 cases per 10000 newborns over the studied period. Conclusion The prevalence of orofacial anomalies among the newborns archived over 18 years was high with no significant differences between male and female babies.

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